It was estimated that in 2008, advertising spend in the UK exceeded £20 billion (Albert and Reid 2011: 4) and represented approaching 10% of GDP. However, these statistics alone do not indicate whether the promotional campaigns that make up these numbers are or have been effective. It is this question that is being examined, both in the context of business to consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) advertising. As part of this analysis, a recent campaign for Barcadi Breezer (White 2012) will be examined.
Although advances in technology have led to a radical change
in the manner in which advertising messages are being
promoted to the consumer (George Belch 2004; Keegan and
Green 2012), research related to the success and
effectiveness of advertising has been ongoing for nearly a
century. Furthermore, there has been little change in the
assumption of these theories. This is confirmed in the
publication edited by Adrian Mackay, which includes an
outline of the 1920s theory proposed by Daniel Starch
(Mackay 2005: 25), the fundamental concept of which that
adverting effectiveness is based on four important criteria,
namely that it must be seen, read, believed and remembered.
There is of course a fifth important criteria, which is that
the message must be clear (Wilmshurst and Mackay 1999).
However, the criterion set by Starch still remains the basic
pillars on which subsequent research into advertising
effectiveness has been founded. Research into the four
characteristics of this theory has generally been divided
into two main groups, the psychological, which addresses
belief and remembering, and the practical, seen and read